Friday, September 28, 2012

To Ireland!

JAMES_GILL.jpg (92087 bytes)

I'm off to Ireland today with my family.  My son graduated from Ithaca College in May and wanted to visit the birthplace of his father's family.  I didn't want to drive, so we're renting a canal boat and exploring the inland waterways of the Grand Canal.

The James Gill is our home away from for the next week.  We're taking a MIFI with us, so maybe I will be posting daily, but if not, I'll be back in Desiree's world next week.

When I'll be starting to record THE QUEEN OF LAST :THE STORY OF MARGARET OF ANJOU by Susan Higginbotham

go n-éiri an t-ádh leat le do thuras - happy trails!

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte: a rather uncommon name that evokes a variety of reactions from those who hear it. Some say he was a French hero; others say he was the greatest soldier of all time; some say he was a scoundrel who left Europe in shambles; others say he was a warmonger with no regard for human life; and some go so far as to claim that he was an antichrist. But what is the truth about Napoleon? Although grenade thrown into a kitchen in France might result in Linoleum
Blownapart, this much is certain: Napoleon exploded over the face of Europe, and impacted the entire world.

Napoleon was born Napoleone Buonoparte on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica. "Napoleon Bonaparte" was the French pronunciation of his name. France had bought Corsica from Italy in 1768 making him the first French member of his previously Italian family (his oldest brother, Joseph, was born only months before France obtained Corsica). Carlo Buonoparte, Napoleon's father, was a lawyer who was able to enter French aristocracy as a count one year before Napoleon was born. Thanks to the influence of his father, King Louise XVI paid for Napoleon's education. Napoleon was educated and trained at a military academy in Paris. He was an awkward boy who was often teased for his thick Corsican accent and his comparatively small stature. Nevertheless, he did well and was nicknamed "the Little Corporal." He graduated at age 16 and joined the French artillery. It was around this time that he exhibited a strong interest in both history and philosophy. He formed strong opinions about both of these subjects. It's possible that these opinions and beliefs shaped nearly all that he did.

In 1791, after the French revolution had begun, Napoleon became a part of the Corsican National Guard. By the time Corsica gained independence in 1793, Napoleon, having become a French patriot, moved all of the Bonaparte family to France. At the age of 24 Napoleon succeeded at driving the British Fleet from the harbor of Toulon. He was made a brigadier general and successfully protected the revolutionary government from a mob of Parisians. While in Paris he met Josephine de Beauharnais, the widow of a guillotined aristocrat. They fell in love and were married in 1796. Napoleon continued to strike at British trade but in 1799, he found himself in Egypt pitted against the Turks (who were allies of Britain). He successfully defeated the Turks but became stranded when British Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed his fleet. Napoleon, not being one to pass up an opportunity, reformed Egypt's feudal system and granted all citizens basic rights. Because he was interested in Egypt's history and culture, he had brought with him a group of French scholars. These same scholars are the ones who uncovered the Rosetta stone. The serious study of ancient Egyptian history was in effect started by Napoleon.

Later in 1799, Austria and Russia allied with Britain to attack France. Napoleon left his army in Egypt and returned to defend his country. He was welcomed back as a hero. Napoleon joined a conspiracy against the government in Paris. By the end of 1799, the conspiracy overthrew the government and formed what was known as the Consulate. Although it was first believed he would not become a leader, Napoleon took measures to assure the constitution of this new government made him first consul. Over the next four years, the constitution was revised to make Napoleon consul for life, then emperor. Napoleon asserted his power by swiftly defeating the Austrians and drawing up an international peace treaty that assured France's borders. But peace did not last for very long.

France had been in disagreement with the Roman Catholic Church since the revolution. But in 1801, Napoleon and Pope Pius VII signed the Concordat of 1801. With this agreement the pope recognized the revolution and France recognized the Church. Napoleon did not care for the Roman Catholic Church, but he recognized that some agreement was necessary. What annoyed him the most was the amount of political power the Roman Catholic Church held. He had once written, "Christianity declares that its kingdom is not of this world; how then can it stimulate affection for one's native land, how can it inspire any feelings but skepticism, indifference and coldness for human affairs and government?" Anyone wishing to argue "separation of church and state" would be wiser to look to Napoleon, rather than misquote Thomas Jefferson.

Although he did not like the Roman Catholic Church and was often irreverent, Napoleon himself was no atheist. His studies in Corsica led him to belief in God and admiration (but not imitation) of Jesus. Although Napoleon did not follow Christ's (or anyone else's) teachings, he once said, "A society without religion is like a ship without a compass; there is no good morality without religion." He later claimed he was anointed by the Lord to be a leader. His views on theology were very complex and it is difficult to say what his true beliefs were (perhaps even he did not know). What reverence he did have was toward God, but never toward Church officials.

In 1804, Napoleon was made emperor, a title that was traditionally conferred by the Pope. But during the ceremony, Napoleon took the crown from the pope's hands and crowned himself emperor and his wife, Josephine, empress. This sent the cold and clear message that he, unlike Holy Roman Emperors of the past, would not share his power with the pope. The citizens of Paris were oddly unfazed by all of this, but as Napoleon irreverently claimed, "I could marry [the Virgin Mary] without shocking the Parisians." The pope left Paris very displeased with his former friend.

Since Napoleon was the ruler of France, he was in control of Louisiana (which was many times larger than present day Louisiana). He originally intended to use Louisiana as a "breadbasket," but decided it would be better to sell it. While he was in the bathtub, of all places, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States of America. The Napoleonic Code governs the State of Louisiana to this day.

Even before he became emperor, Napoleon had already started his wars of conquest. He started by conquering every country surrounding France except Britain. Napoleon's conquest of Spain greatly disrupted her holdings in the new world and allowed many South American countries to rebel. Despite the fact that his government was centralized, Napoleon managed to do quite well at improving the areas he conquered. He granted basic rights and freedom of religion through his Napoleonic Code. Freedom of religion displeased the Roman Catholic Church even further since most of the areas granted this freedom were originally Catholic.
Napoleon had been in control of Italy for some time, but when he ordered that the Papal State be annexed to his empire, Pope Pius VII excommunicated those who were sent to carry out the annexation. Napoleon responded by arresting the Pope and throwing him in prison, where he died. Between his conquests of Europe and imprisonment of the Pope, the Emperor Napoleon was quickly gaining enemies.

Napoleon was disappointed by the fact that he had no heir, but since Josephine had two children by her previous marriage, Napoleon believed that it was his own fault. Over the course of their marriage, Napoleon had affairs with two other women. The fact that both these women gave birth to male children convinced Napoleon to divorce Josephine. He then proceeded to marry Marie Louise, the daughter of the emperor of Austria. Marie Louise was a member of the oldest ruling house of Europe. This placed Napoleon in direct relation with the monarchy the French had revolted against to begin with. In 1811, Francois Charles Joseph a.k.a. Napoleon II was born. Napoleon II died at age 20 without ever having ruled France. Napoleon had hoped that since his son was a blood member of the ruling family, he would be readily accepted as a leader.

In 1812, Napoleon marched on Russia and met with disaster. He initially gained minor success, but when he entered the presumed to be abandoned city of Moscow, the Russian troops set it on fire. The Russians attacked head on and Napoleon was forced to abandon his army. He made it back to Paris safely, but all of Europe picked this moment to attack. Despite being hopelessly outnumbered, Napoleon fought on brilliantly. When his army refused to continue, Napoleon was forced to surrender and abdicate his throne. He placed his wife and son in the care of Austria and bid them farewell for the last time. In 1814, Napoleon was exiled to the Island of St. Elba. In 1815, he escaped from Elba and actually gained the support of the soldiers that were sent to recapture him. His old supporters returned to his side as he resumed rule in Paris for what is known as the "100 Days." He sought peace with the Allies, but when they proclaimed him an outlaw, he went for the preemptive strike. He was swiftly defeated at the battle of Waterloo on June 8, 1815. He was exiled to the remote south-Atlantic island of St. Helena. He wrote his memoirs between numerous escape attempts. He grew very sick in his last days and died on May 5, 1821. Stomach cancer was first believed to be the cause of his death, though there has been much speculation of poisoning and medical malpractice.

Napoleon's legacy is a mixed one. When he was exiled to St. Helena, Napoleon was easily the most despised person in the world. When his body was returned to Paris 50 years after his death, he was made a hero. He did indeed caused a great deal of bloodshed, but he believed it was all for a good cause. In his memoirs he reveals his belief that he was a pawn of history. He believed that there was a great deal of good left for him to accomplish. He may not have respected the Church, but he didn't persecute it either. He may have conquered many nations, but he did bring about some change for the good. Napoleon was a very complex man and even to this day historians are hesitant to draw any conclusions.

Carroll, Bob. Napoleon Bonaparte (The Importance Of). San Diego: Lucent Books, 1994.
McGuire, Leslie. NAPOLEON (World Leaders Past & Present). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986.
"Napoleon I." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000, Microsoft Corporation: 1993-1999.
Napoleon Bonaparte. Retrieved October 20, 2002, from


The above essay was donated to
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Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 - 1821)

Emperor of France, Napoleon I
One of the greatest military leaders in history and emperor of France, he conquered much of Europe.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on 15 August 1769 in Corsica into a gentry family. Educated at military school, he was rapidly promoted and in 1796, was made commander of the French army in Italy, where he forced Austria and its allies to make peace. In 1798, Napoleon conquered Ottoman-ruled Egypt in an attempt to strike at British trade routes with India. He was stranded when his fleet was destroyed by the British at the Battle of the Nile.
France now faced a new coalition - Austria and Russia had allied with Britain. Napoleon returned to Paris where the government was in crisis. In a coup d'etat in November 1799, Napoleon became first consul. In 1802, he was made consul for life and two years later, emperor. He oversaw the centralisation of government, the creation of the Bank of France, the reinstatement of Roman Catholicism as the state religion and law reform with the Code Napoleon.
In 1800, he defeated the Austrians at Marengo. He then negotiated a general European peace which established French power on the continent. In 1803, Britain resumed war with France, later joined by Russia and Austria. Britain inflicted a naval defeat on the French at Trafalgar (1805) so Napoleon abandoned plans to invade England and turned on the Austro-Russian forces, defeating them at Austerlitz later the same year. He gained much new territory, including annexation of Prussian lands which ostensibly gave him control of Europe. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, Holland and Westphalia created, and over the next five years, Napoleon's relatives and loyalists were installed as leaders (in Holland, Westphalia, Italy, Naples, Spain and Sweden).
In 1810, he had his childless marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais annulled and married the daughter of the Austrian emperor in the hope of having an heir. A son, Napoleon, was born a year later.
The Peninsular War began in 1808. Costly French defeats over the next five years drained French military resources. Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 resulted in a disastrous retreat. The tide started to turn in favour of the allies and in March 1814, Paris fell. Napoleon went into exile on the Mediterranean island of Elba. In March 1815 he escaped and marched on the French capital. The Battle of Waterloo ended his brief second reign. The British imprisoned him on the remote Atlantic island of St Helena, where he died on 5 May 1821.

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Napoleon: For Dummies

Educating a Genius

Napoleon's family was not impoverished, but it was by no means wealthy. During Napoleon's childhood, the Bonapartes owned only a few rooms of a large house (which they would eventually own in its entirety).
The Bonapartes were greatly helped when Napoleon's father, Carlo, applied for and received recognition as a member of the noble class. This allowed Carlo to pursue his political career and gave him advantages as a lawyer as well.
Even so, Carlo's salary was never great. Like parents everywhere, Carlo and Napoleon's mother, Leticia, wondered how they would afford their children's education. And like people throughout history, they would find that it never hurt to have good connections. Their connection in this case was substantial: Count Marbeuf, the French governor of Corsica.

Getting a helping hand from Marbeuf

By all accounts, Count Marbeuf was an outstanding governor of Corsica. He had been sent at a time when emotions were high and the French were not universally loved. But he worked hard to organize reforms and to improve life for average Corsicans. He lowered taxes and organized numerous building projects. This was made easier by the fact that the French government in Paris recognized the delicate nature of his position and supported him with adequate funds to try to make the Corsicans happy with his rule. He even worked on speaking the Corsican dialect of French so that he could better communicate with the common people on the island. In short, he was about as good as the islanders could have ever hoped to get.
When Marbeuf first arrived on the island, he actually stayed at the Bonaparte home. Carlo and Marbeuf hit it off quite well and developed a mutually useful relationship. Both men had a strong interest in agriculture and worked together on a couple of projects. They were also both interested in politics, and each supported the French presence on the island. Marbeuf might have helped the Bonapartes regardless of any other factors.
But there was another factor, of course. Marbeuf developed quite a strong interest in Carlo's wife, Leticia. With great beauty and a pleasing personality, she no doubt attracted the eyes and inspired the hopes of more than one man on the island. But Marbeuf, of course, was quite different than other men. At 64, he was much older, but more importantly, he was the governor and could offer favors the others could not.
Leticia was interested only in a friendly relationship, which seems to have been enough for Marbeuf. They took long walks and had nice talks. Marbeuf treated her family as though they were his own. It was Marbeuf who helped Carlo prove his nobility, and it was Marbeuf who told Carlo of the existence of free scholarships for education in France. With the right recommendation, boys could attend the seminary in Aix, France or a military academy, while girls could go to finishing school at Saint-Cyr — all paid for by the king!
This news was almost too good to be true, and Carlo was quick to take advantage of it. In 1777, Marbeuf forwarded his recommendations, and soon Napoleon was accepted to the military academy at Brienne and Napoleon's eldest brother, Joseph, was accepted to the seminary at Aix. But Joseph was too young to start seminary, and Napoleon had to await further processing before he could enter the academy. Again Marbeuf stepped in and sent both boys to stay (at his expense) with his nephew at the college of Autun, where they could learn French. (Marbeuf's nephew just happened to be the local bishop.) And just to help out a little more, Marbeuf arranged for Leticia's half-brother, Joseph Fesch, to attend the seminary at Aix.
On December 15, the two boys and Leticia's half-brother left Corsica for the mainland of France. Napoleon was 9 years old and about to enter a world beyond anything he had ever imagined possible. (No one would ever say that these three young men squandered their educations; they would eventually become an emperor, a king, and a cardinal.)

Learning to speak French

While at Autun, Napoleon had to learn French; as of yet, the future Emperor of the French could hardly speak the language. The effort did not go well. Napoleon found memorizing difficult, and his natural inclination to hurry did not do him well in the study of language. Worse yet, his French had (and always would have) a strong Corsican accent, a fact that did him no favors throughout his schooling. Still, after three months at Autun, Napoleon had learned conversational French and was able to pass his language exams.
By May 1778, Carlo had secured the necessary documents so Napoleon could move to the military school at Brienne. Napoleon and Joseph were unhappy to have to part company for what might be a very long time. But Napoleon's time at Autun had been well spent, and he was ready, at the ripe old age of 9, to move on.

Attending French military school

French military education in the late 18th century was not exactly a model of democracy. The opportunity to be an officer was reserved almost exclusively for the nobility and almost exclusively for native Frenchmen. To say that the system was elitist would be an understatement. Moreover, at least half the young students attended military school on expense accounts provided by their wealthy families. Scholarship recipients like Napoleon were looked down on by most of the students. Napoleon was poor by their standards, and it would show.
Worse yet, Napoleon wasn't even French! True, Corsica had become a French territory, but the French had a very low opinion of Corsicans (noble or otherwise), seeing them as just this side of barbarians. Many of the cadets came from wealthy and powerful families, and they did not necessarily appreciate having to mix with the "rabble," even that which was nobility. On Corsica, Napoleon's family was fairly high on the social scale. At Brienne, he was virtually at the bottom.
Add to that the fact that Napoleon didn't speak great French (and spoke it with a heavy Corsican accent), and it was clear that Napoleon was stepping into a situation that could prove to be very difficult. Young boys can be cruel in any circumstance, and this situation was made to order for bad behavior and bad attitudes.
Napoleon was assigned a small room in a dormitory. It was a Spartan existence, but that didn't seem to bother Napoleon. If nothing else, the dorm situation put all cadets on a somewhat equal footing. All cadets wore a uniform, which was another equalizer.
Napoleon was determined to succeed and immediately settled in to his new routine. As a student, he began to excel. (He wasn't a perfect student, though: His spelling and handwriting were quite bad.) He was serious about his studies and spent much of his free time reading. Of course, with his lack of funds he could do little else.
Napoleon's relations with the other cadets, however, did not go so well. The young boys of the elite nobility bullied Napoleon. Slight of build, he was less able to physically defend himself than he might have liked, though he did develop a reputation for generally holding his own against his larger adversaries. He began to withdraw somewhat, tending to keep to himself rather than socialize or engage in group activities. (He did enjoy gardening — each cadet was given a small plot of land.)

Dealing with poverty

Napoleon's poverty continued to be a problem, isolating him from some of the other cadets and preventing him from buying some things he may have wanted. As the years went on, his poverty bothered him more, and he longed to be either removed from school or given an allowance. In 1781, at the age of 12, he wrote his father asking for an allowance or a withdrawal, saying "I am tired of exhibiting indigence, and of seeing the smiles of insolent scholars who are only superior to me by reason of their fortune."
Carlo was in no position to give Napoleon any further assistance. His financial picture had not improved, and his health was deteriorating. He and Leticia were anxious for Napoleon to graduate as soon as possible to allow Napoleon's brother Lucien to go to school on the same scholarship.
Condemned to poverty, Napoleon resolved to do all the better in school. Soon he began to excel in history, math, and geography. Math was likely the most important of the three for a military career, but history really captured Napoleon's imagination. Like many young men, Napoleon was especially taken with the stories of ancient heroes like Achilles, Alexander the Great, and Julius Caesar. No one could have suspected then that he would eventually join that elite group.
While his poverty was certainly a source of difficulty for Napoleon, it almost certainly influenced his later behavior. For example,
  • Napoleon's poverty may have inspired his later commitment to promoting equality in France and throughout his empire.
  • The treatment he received at the hands of the arrogant French noble cadets was also likely a major reason he developed strong feelings for Corsican independence. Notwithstanding the fact that he was receiving an excellent education at French expense, Napoleon began to dream of Corsican independence and to idolize Paoli. These feelings would shape much of his behavior throughout his early career.
Napoleon also began to develop some important friendships. Probably the most important was Louis-Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne, who would later serve as Napoleon's secretary. Napoleon also became friends with some of the adult staff. His relations with the other students improved somewhat, perhaps because they could see that he was exceptionally talented. His leadership was often sought for the periodic snowball fights that took place.

Moving to the next level

While Napoleon was at Brienne, Carlo's health continued to get worse. Joseph, who had been very successful at Autun, decided not to enter the seminary and seek a career in the Church. Instead, he wanted to go into the military. (Napoleon opposed this decision and said so, but to no avail.) Lucien, meanwhile, was poised to enter Brienne, which he did in 1784. Unlike Napoleon, however, Lucien had no financial aid, hoping to pick up Napoleon's scholarship upon his older brother's graduation. And Napoleon's youngest sister, Caroline, had been enrolled at the exclusive school at Saint Cyr, where Carlo had managed to get her a scholarship.
It was clearly in the family's best interest for Napoleon to graduate as soon as possible. An islander by heritage, Napoleon applied for a position in the navy, but nothing came of that effort. Napoleon was very young, a fact that probably delayed his graduation and may well have prevented positive action on his request for naval service. Another factor was probably the death of the family benefactor, Count Marbeuf, who had been promoting Napoleon's naval aspirations.
With Marbeuf gone, the Bonapartes were on their own, and Napoleon needed to move forward in his education. Fortunately, he passed his exams in October 1784 and was accepted to the Military School of Paris. He was only 15 years old.
Having excelled at math and geometry, Napoleon selected the military branch that made the best use of those subjects: artillery. This was an excellent decision for many reasons, including the fact that artillery was an elite branch that offered excellent career opportunities. Those opportunities would be greatly enhanced by Napoleon's acceptance to his new school, which was essentially the equivalent of West Point in the United States or Sandhurst in the United Kingdom. Napoleon had really arrived: His nomination had been signed by no less than King Louis XVI.
With Napoleon graduated from Brienne, Carlo had hoped that Lucien would receive his scholarship, but that didn't happen. Fortunately, Joseph was able to attend Brienne on a royal scholarship, which certainly helped the family finances.

Wowing them in Paris

In late October 1784, Napoleon arrived in Paris. It was by far the largest city he had ever seen, and he was completely taken by all the sights. He bought a book about the city and was prepared for a grand time. He would soon discover, however, that Paris was a reflection of the state of French society. It was a city of great wealth but with great poverty as well. A large gap between the rich and the poor is always problematic, and the gap in Paris and throughout France was enormous.
None of that mattered much to Napoleon as he entered his new school. He was among the most elite of all France's military leaders. In keeping with its clientele, the school was luxurious. While the quarters were a bit on the small side, the classrooms were large and elegant. Located at one end of the Champ de Mars (today, the Eiffel Tower is at the other end) and near the Hôtel des Invalides (the home for retired veterans), it was very much in the center of things. (In death, Napoleon would return to the area, with his final resting place being under the gold dome of the Invalides. An adjacent military museum is largely dedicated to his career.)
In Paris, life was in some ways much grander for Napoleon. The cadets ate five-course meals and had the very best teachers available. The student-teacher ratio was very nearly one to one, which was (and is) virtually unheard of in other schools. Napoleon actually objected to the extravagance of the meals and wrote a lengthy letter to that effect to the Minister of War. At the advice of his former director at Brienne, he dropped the matter.
Napoleon continued to be something of a loner. The French nobility at this school were even higher on the social scale than those at Brienne, and they never missed an opportunity to put Napoleon in his place. He had more than one altercation with his comrades. On the other hand, he continued to be a popular selection for snowball fights.
As a student, Napoleon continued to excel, though his grades were not as good as they had been in Brienne. In addition to history and math, he developed a strong interest in literature. Still hoping for a commission in the navy, he nevertheless excelled at artillery. His love of Corsica and dreams of her independence did not lessen, nor did the negative reaction of both his classmates and his teachers, who had to remind him from time to time that he was there courtesy of the French king.

Losing his father

Napoleon's father continued to have serious health problems, and shortly after Napoleon entered school in Paris, Carlo went to southern France to seek diagnosis and treatment. He was told by doctors that his condition was terminal stomach cancer. He died in February 1785. As he had been in life, in death Carlo was deep in debt. If Napoleon thought he was poor when Carlo was alive, he was truly destitute with his father gone.
Napoleon was no doubt heartbroken with his father's death, though he likely saw it coming. He showed his strength of character by immediately writing to his mother and even by refusing the usual priestly consolation. As the eldest, it fell to Joseph to return to Corsica to see to family affairs, which allowed Napoleon to remain in school.

Graduating ahead of his class

The normal course of study for artillery at the Military School of Paris was two years. But Napoleon, who worked hard and excelled in much of what he did, was able to graduate after only one year. Detractors love to point out that his score was not that high — he ranked 42nd of the 58 young men who passed their exams that year. But most of those 58 had been in school at least two years. Napoleon was the fourth youngest of his graduating class and the only one for whom French was not his native language.
At 16, Napoleon received his commission as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery. He was about to step out into the real world — a world that he would soon come to dominate.

Napoleon and the Jews

By Ben Weider, CM, PhD
Napoleon was the first leader in Europe to grant liberty, equality and fraternity to all religions. In this lithograph of the period, Napoleon is granting liberty to the Jews.

Conference given at:

International Congress of the
International Napoleonic Society

Allessandria, Italy
June 21-26, 1997

28th Consortium on
Revolutionary Europe

Florida State University
Tallahassee, USA,
March 7, 1998


Napoleon as Emperor at the moment of his corononation,
wearing the collar of the Legion of Honour, which he founded in 1802.

If ever a ruler owed his position to what is called the "will of the people," Napoleon did. Napoleon won it by his success with the sword, not the sword of execution, nor the sword of the guillotine, but the sword of battle against the enemies of France.
The people of France elected Napoleon as the Emperor, because he saved France from its enemies and he defended the gains of the Revolution at home.
Napoleon established both the Bank of France and the French bourse (stock exchange) as well as National and Departmental Tax Boards, to insure equitable taxation for all. Consequently, the income of the French peasants skyrocketed.
Napoleon established awards such as the "Legion of Honour" to reward those whose services to the nation merited special recognition; the recipient could be scientist, composer, legislator, clergyman, writer, as well as a soldier.
In the area of public works, over 20,000 miles of imperial and 12,000 miles of regional roads were completed, almost a thousand miles of canals were build, the Great Cornice road was constructed along the Mediterranean coast, mountain roads were constructed across the Alps by ways of Simplon Pass and Mont. Cenis, and harbors were dredged and expanded at many ports, including Dunkerque and Cherbourg.
Not only was Paris beautified with the construction of boulevards, bridges and monuments, but the National Archives received a permanent home. Napoleon also saved the Louvre.
Monument buildings were constructed throughout the Empire and structures, such as the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer, made famous by Luther, were preserved while work on the spires of the great cathedral of Cologne were continued on Napoleon's orders. In fact, Napoleon's architectural handiwork can be found scattered across Europe, from Rome to Vienna.
"Think tanks" and research centers were established in France to work on projects vital for national economy. An Industrial Board was organized to provide data and information to French Industry, as exemplified by the success of the sugar beet farming and the canning industry.
For religion, Napoleon ended the schism and restored the Catholic Church to France by the Concordat in 1801. He insured freedom of religions and equality to the Protestant sects, and he declared France the homeland of the Jews, after it became obvious he could not establish their national home in Palestine.
The Code Napoleon established equality before the law, emphasized the sanctity of the family, and assured the legal gains of the Revolution. The Code of Civil Procedure insured widespread user of mediation in the courts and the laws, and the courts were secularized.
Napoleon created the Imperial University to administer French Education. Specialized engineering and technological schools were established along with the famous lycées to insure a scientific education. The establishment of a Professional School of Midwifery and first School of Obstetrics were formed during the consulate and the School of Veterinary Science was professionalized under Napoleon.
In the military, Napoleon pioneered in what we describe today as the "principles of war" which are studied by almost every military academy in the world. The armies of today are based on the organization created by Napoleon for his Grand Army and it has been used ever since.
Many historians claim that Napoleon created his own legend on St. Helena. The truth is that his legend started in Toulon in 1793.
Lord Holland, speaking in the British House of Peers, spoke about the deceased Emperor in August 1833. He stated: "The very people who detested this great man have acknowledged that for 10 centuries there has not appeared upon earth a more extraordinary "character."
This is indeed a tribute to the Emperor.


First, it is ridiculed;

Second, it is violently attacked;

Finally, it is accepted as self-evident.

It is easy to succumb to the temptation of quoting recognized authorities and obtain information from secondary sources rather than do primary research. A quote from a written document made by one historian and uncritically repeated by another soon acquires the authority of "Common Knowledge." This research did not rely on accepted HISTORIAN EVALUATION, but on primary research.
After having completed years of research, basically on primary sources, and having access to the archives in Cairo, Alexandria, Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, and researching Jewish literature that deals with Napoleon, I am pleased to present this part of Napoleonic history that is not very well known.

The Pursuit Of Factual Detail Is The Religion Of Perfection

One of the many contributions that Napoleon has made to improve the quality of life of the people, and perhaps one of his most important and lasting one, was his Civil Code. He felt a personal responsibility for its realization.
This at a time in history when discrimination was rampant. It was then that Napoleon decided to liberate and offer, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity to Jews, Protestants and Free Masons. He also opened the churches that were closed for years.

Civil Code
Napoleon was the first leader in Europe to grant liberty, equality and fraternity to all religions. In this lithograph of the period, Napoleon is granting liberty to the Jews.
The Civil Code of 1804 was to grant religious freedom to all of them. At that time, there were about 480,000 Calvinists and 200,000 Lutherans living in France.
In 1804, Napoleon arranged for the public regulation of the Protestant communities and then decided that the State would assume the responsibility for the salaries of their pastors.

How Did Napoleon's Involvement With The Jews Come About?

Napoleon Bonaparte had not met any Jews in his youth, and perhaps not even during his school years in France. His first contact with the organized Jewish community probably took place on the 9th of February 1797 in Italy during the Italian campaign.
When Napoleon and his army entered Ancona, the Jewish community was living in a small ghetto. Napoleon, at that time, remarked that certain people were walking around with yellow bonnets and a yellow arm band with the "Star of David" on it. He asked one of his officers, what was the purpose of the yellow bonnet and the arm band. The officer replied that these were Jews who had to be identified in order that they return to the ghetto every evening. Napoleon immediately ordered that the arm bands and the yellow bonnets be removed and replaced them with the tricolor rosette. He closed the ghettos and gave instructions that the Jews could live wherever they wanted and they could practice their religion openly. The Jews of Ancona were overjoyed when they discovered that the first French soldiers who entered the ghetto were Jewish!
Later, Napoleon also closed the "Jewish Ghetto" in Rome. He liberated also the Jews of Venice, Verona and Padua.
The "liberator of Italy" abolished the Laws of the Inquisition, and the Jews felt free at last. (See: Appendix 1)

Why Did Napoleon Do This?

Did He Have A Motive?
And yet, here is another incident of interest. On the 12th of June 1798 when the French occupied Malta, Napoleon learnt that the Templar Knights did not allow the Jews to practice their religion in a synagogue. The Knights enslaved their Jewish prisoners and mercilessly used them or sold them. He immediately gave permission to the Jews to build a synagogue.
Again I Ask - Why Did Napoleon Do This?
What Could Be Napoleon's Motive?
Now here is an amazing incident which is not generally known.
When the French troops were in Palestine, and besieging the city of Acre, Napoleon had already prepared a Proclamation (See:Appendix 2) making Palestine an independent Jewish state.
He felt confident that he could occupy Acre and the following days he would enter Jerusalem and from Jerusalem he would issue his proclamation. He was unable to realize this project because of the intervention of the British.
This proclamation was printed and dated the 20th of April 1799, but his unsuccessful attempt to capture Acre prevented it from being issued. The Jews had to wait more than 150 years before their state was proclaimed.
The proclamation, however did bear fruit. It was a precursor to Zionism, heightening awareness of the cause of Jewish statehood. The ideas Napoleon expressed found the admiration of many who saw Napoleon's gestures as a fulfillment of Biblical prophecy, which foretells of the restoration of the Jews to their land. The idea drew many adherents, especially in England.
One hundred and eighteen years later, the British would issue the "Balfour" declaration which called for a Jewish homeland and ultimately - 31 years later in 1948 - Israel would be recognized as a sovereign state by popular vote in the United Nations General Assembly. Perhaps it can be said that Napoleon's premature announcement on that first day of Passover in 1799 played an important role in the creation of the state of Israel.
In the Paris Moniteur Universel, on 3 Prairial of the year VII (22 may 1799). It was announced: "Bonaparte has published a proclamation in which he invites all the Jews of Asia and Africa to gather under his flag in order to re-establish the ancient Jerusalem. He has already given arms to a great number, and their battalions threaten Aleppo."
On the 16th of August, 1800, Napoleon declared: "If I governed a nation of Jews, I should reestablish the Temple of Solomon."

Why Did Napoleon Do This?

It just does not make sense, because he had nothing political to gain. However, the answer could be discovered in a private conversation that Napoleon had with Dr. Barry O'Meara, which took place on the Island of St. Helena.
On the 10th of November 1816, Dr. O'Meara (who was Napoleon's personal physician at the time) asked the Emperor point blank as to why he was encouraging and supporting the Jews.
The Emperor Napoleon replied, and I quote:
"My primary desire was to liberate the Jews and make them full citizens. I wanted to confer upon them all the legal rights of equality, liberty and fraternity as was enjoyed by the Catholics and Protestants. It is my wish that the Jews be treated like brothers as if we were all part of Judaism. As an added benefit, I thought that this would bring to France many riches because the Jews are numerous and they would come in large numbers to our country where they would enjoy more privileges than in any other nation. Without the events of 1814, most of the Jews of Europe would have come to France where equality, fraternity and liberty awaited them and where they can serve the country like everyone else."
During the different periods of Napoleon's career, his sympathy for the Jews were clearly noted. He did everything he could to assure that the Jews were treated on an equal basis as Catholics and Protestants.
The French Revolution in 1789 was to change all the various restrictions that Jews had to face in France. It was on the 27th of September 1791 that France adopted a decree which accorded the Jews of France full citizenship.
However, the Legislative Assembly did not take any specific measures to apply this new freedom that was granted to the Jews. The National Convention closed the synagogues, forbid the use of the Hebrew language and in general made their lives difficult.
Under the Directory, the synagogues were opened again and Jews got involved in business and in political life. But, in general, the Jews were barely tolerated.
Before Napoleon took over the leadership of the French government, the political situation of the Jews was precarious, unstable, and had to submit to negative laws, and according to specific regions of France, they were some times treated in a liberal manner and some times in a tyrannical manner.
Napoleon's religious opinions were the height of modern philosophy; he was completely given to tolerance. Everywhere that Napoleon went, he led tolerance by the hand; everywhere that he found several religions, he ended the domination by which one took precedence over the others. "Faith," Napoleon would say, "is beyond the reach of the law. It is the most personal possession of man, and no one has the right to demand and account for it."
He wanted the Jews to have their Jerusalem in France.

One of the most respected Jewish poet and philosopher was Christophe Martin Wieland. Napoleon made a point of meeting with him when he was in Germany.
Metternich-Winneburg, who was the Austrian consul in Paris in a letter to Count Standion, Austria's foreign minister, on September 1806 stated: "All Jews look upon Napoleon as their Messiah."
Napoleon was the only government leader that gave Jews equality when most other nations kept them in bondage. He also abolished the special taxes on Jews in Germany and gave them, for the very first time, civic and political equality. When strong opposition in France manifested itself, Napoleon stood firm in his support of Jewish equality.
When Napoleon came to power, he did not liberate the Jews for political reasons because there were not much more than 40,000 in all of France, and they were living in various provinces.
The province where Jews were most persecuted was Alsace, where half of the Jewish population of France was living. In Paris, there were approximately 1,000 Jews. They were excluded from doing business, excluded from government positions and from the purchase of property.
The principle leader of the new law dated the 8th of April 1802, which dealt with the organization of various religions was Jean-Etienne Portalis, the Minister of Religion. He said: "Jews should participate as equals, like all other religions, as permitted by our laws."
Although there was tremendous opposition by the anti-Semites, one of the leading Jewish citizens, Isaac Cerf-Berr, presented to Minister Portalis, a specific plan that would ensure Jewish integration into the population. The plan was brought to Napoleon at his camp in Boulogne in 1805. He approved it and instructed Portalis to implement it as quickly as possible.
As far as the Jews are concerned, it can hardly be doubted that Napoleon's laws regulating the life of the French-Jewish communities were a turning point in their development in modern free-society.
Cerf Berr has been instrumental in securing the abolition of the poll tax which was required of any Jew wishing to spend the day in Strasbourg.
It was in 1806, after the Austerlitz campaign, that Napoleon aggressively supported total liberty for the Jews. Notwithstanding this, the French newspaper, the Mercure de France, published a violently anti-Semitic article stating that the Jews could have freedom in France, provided they all converted and became Catholics.
Great opposition to Napoleon's plan to make equal citizens out of the Jews living in France was led by Molé, Beugnot, Segur, and Regnier.
Notwithstanding this heavy opposition, including anti-Semitism generated by numerous newspapers, Napoleon was quoted as saying, I quote, "This is not the way to solve the Jewish question. I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them."
The decree issued on the 30th of May 1806 requested that a Special Assembly of Jewish leaders and Rabbis, from all of the French departments, would meet in Paris to discuss all outstanding matters, including answering questions dealing with accusations against the Jews made by the anti-Semites.
It was on the 23rd of July 1806, when all of these representatives met in Paris, at which time Napoleon stated:
"My desire is to make Jews equal citizens in France, have a conciliation between their religion and their responsibilities in becoming French, and to answer all the accusations made against them. I want all people living in France to be equal citizens and benefit from our laws."
One hundred and eleven representatives of the Jewish community, representing all the departments of France and Northern Italy met at City Hall. Napoleon had requested answers to accusations made against the Jews so he could understand their position clearly. The reunion of so many Jews from the different parts of France represented the renewal of the famous "Sanhedrin" which ruled Israel from 170 to 106 before Jesus Christ.
The Grand Sanhedrin, was the Supreme Assembly of the Jewish nation, and had not been reunited for 18 centuries. Napoleon had the idea of assembling the principal Jewish notables of all of Europe, in order to permit them to solve the problems that concerned him. Convened by decree on the 23rd of August 1806, the Grand Sanhedrin met from the 9th of February to the 9th of March 1807. At the time of their last reunion, Napoleon was proclaimed the modern "Cyrus." Napoleon was warmly and unanimously praised.
The Sanhedrin continued to be an important force in Israel until 72 AD when the Roman General Titus destroyed Jerusalem. The Sanhedrin replaced the monarchy in Israel in those days and it was their authority that administered the country.
They interpreted the law, and sat as judges in major cases. This was the first time since the Sanhedrin was disbanded in Israel that it was reconvened, by the great liberator "Napoleon."
The reconvening of the Sanhedrin drew a historical comparison between Napoleon and the ancient heros, one of whom was "Cyrus the Great." Cyrus, the King of Persia, was the initiator of Israel's first restoration.
Tsar Alexander of Russia, protested violently against the liberation of the Jews and encouraged the Orthodox Church in Moscow to protest aggressively. He called Napoleon the "Anti Christ and the enemy of God" because he liberated the Jews. Austria also protested. In Prussia, the Lutheran Church was extremely hostile towards Napoleon's decision and reaction in Italy was also not favourable but not as aggressive.
A most venomous attack on the Sanhedrin came from the "Holy Synod" of Moscow, which issued an open manifesto against the Sanhedrin. This proclamation dated December 1806 states: "In order to bring about a debasement of the Church, he (Napoleon) has convened to Paris the Jewish Synagogue, restored the dignity of the Rabbis and founded a new Sanhedrin."
Napoleon was concerned about these protests, which also included some leading personalities in France.
Therefore, in 1806, after the campaign of Prussia, and shortly after the victory at Jena, he made a speech in the city of Posen on the 29th of November 1806, where he gave the results of the deliberations of the Sanhedrin, which pleased him very much.
The Sanhedrin was convened again on 31st of January 1807 for two months, in order to fine-tune the law that would make the Jewish religion equal. The special decree of 1806 liberated the Jews from their isolation.
Judaism became the official third religion of France and the method Napoleon implemented to have Rabbis serve the nation is still in effect today and is the basis of the government's relation to the Jewish population.
Napoleon's uncle, Cardinal Fesh, also got involved. He told Napoleon, "Sire, so you wish the end of the world to come with your Laws to give the Jews equality like the Catholics. Do you not know that the Holy Scriptures predict that the end of the world will happen when the Jews will be recognized as a corporate nation."
Even Marshal Kellermann supported by Mole mobilized opposition to Napoleon's laws about the Jews and recommended strongly that the Jews be prohibited from dealing in commerce. The Emperor replied formally and strongly, "We must prevail in encouraging the Jews who are only a very small minority amongst us. In the east departments, we find a great number of Jews that are very honest and industrious."
Because of the tremendous amount of criticism that Napoleon was receiving from such famous personalities as Chateaubriand, Cardinal Fesh, Marshal Kellermann, Tsar Alexander and numerous others, Napoleon felt obligated to introduce a "Restrictive Decree."
On the 17th of March 1808, this Decree limited the freedom given to the Jews. His plan was to reduce criticism to a manageable level and then gradually, over time, remove the restrictions one-by-one.
On the 11th of April 1808, Napoleon received into a special audience, Mr. Furtado and Maurice Levy of Nancy, who wanted to express the emotions of their co-religionists about the Restrictive Decree. After hearing them out, he immediately ordered 13 departments, including those of Le Midi, The Southwest and Les Vosges to eliminate the Decree. In June of that same month, Livourne and the lower Pyrenees were also ordered to remove the "Restrictive Decree."
Therefore, within three months of this Restrictive Decree, more than half of the departments involved were able to reinstate the liberty extended to their Jewish citizens. The last hold-out was Alsace. This province eventually removed the restrictions.
Therefore, in 1811, all restrictions were removed and nothing from a political or civil activity distinguished the Jews from non-Jews in France.
Here is a true anecdote that proves how Napoleon was sympathetic to his Grognards. A young member of the Army served with exceptional bravery. He was from Alsace. The Emperor decided to decorate him with a medal in front of his troops. The Emperor said,"David Bloom, you are a brave soldier. Your place with the Old Guard is inevitable." Then he took off his own silver medal, which he wore proudly, and pinned it on David Bloom's uniform.
David Bloom responded by saying, "Sire, I am from Alsace and I find it difficult to accept this decoration as long as my family is being dishonored by French laws that limit their equality and freedom." Napoleon was visibly upset and was reported to have said, "They have lied to me again, and I will correct these unfair restrictions immediately."
Due to the close collaboration between the administration officials and the local Rabbis and leaders, the Jews were able to leave the ghettos where they were confined and to participate freely in the life of France.
Jews were able to enroll in the universities, participate in whatever professions they wanted and were able to work for various government agencies. Nothing was prohibited any more.
The Imperial Almanac of 1811 reported that the Jewish religion was now one of three religions accepted by the French government. The efforts of Napoleon to liberate the Jews was effective, not only in France, but in all the other countries where France ruled. The new Civil Code, which Napoleon created, assured liberty, fraternity, and equality of all peoples regardless of their religion or station in life.
In 1811, thanks to Napoleon's efforts, Portugal allowed Jews complete freedom and permitted them to open their synagogues that were closed for over 200 years.
The Napoleonic period brought to the Jews of France, the Netherlands, Western Germany and Italy the first intimations of modernity. It brought equality before the law, an end to oppressive taxation and enforced residential restrictions, and the opportunity to participate as free men in public and political life.
In those parts of Spain to which French authority did not reach, the Inquisition continued to function. The sovereigns of the post-Napoleonic era had a weakness in learning nothing and forgetting nothing.
After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, the Holy Alliance was convened at the Congress of Vienna. At that time the laws permitting equality, liberty and fraternity were retracted and were not applied again until 1830, when the principles fixed by the French Revolution and the First Empire, were re-instated.
Prussia retracted the liberal laws in 1815 after the Battle of Waterloo. The worst setback was inflicted upon the Jews of the Papal states. It would almost seem as if Pius VII had taken revenge on the Jewish population of his territory for the humiliation he had suffered at the hand of Napoleon. He was not content with their confinement behind the walls of the re-erected ghetto but he obliged the Jews to wear the "Yellow badge" again. In Sardina, the Jews were thrown back into ghettos and not allowed to build synagogues.
Much later some European nations assimilated the Jews between 1824 and 1867. Notably, Holland in 1830, Sweden in 1834 and Switzerland in 1838.
It is remarkable that in England, it was only in 1858, after Lord Lionel Rothchild was elected five times, that he was permitted to take his seat in parliament. It is also interesting to know that the laws that were passed in France, in 1808, are still in existence even to this day.
Bitter irony covers the historical fact that Napoleon's defeat stopped Emancipation and plunged the Jewish youth into utter disillusionment and despair.
The encounter of the Jewish people with Napoleon was a turning point of Jewish history. For the first time, a modern statesman had envisaged the Jewish problem as a fundamental issue of international politics.
Napoleon did more than any other leader prior to his time, to give security and religious freedom to the Jews in nations under his control. He had little in the way of political motivation for his policy, as there were no more than 40,000 Jews living in France at that time.
The Jews of France and the Empire recognized that this was a reflection of his humanity towards mankind and his respect for other nationalities and religions. They were so thankful to him for having granted them equality and religious freedom, that they offered a special prayer in his honor. This prayer was inserted into the prayer books in every synagogue in countries under Napoleon's control. As a result, all Jews who attended prayers in these synagogues would recite this prayer.

prayer page 1prayer page 2
prayer page 3These pages are a reproduction of the original Hebrew Prayer, for its English translation see Appendix 1.

Appendix 1

Prayer of the Children of Israel

Citizens of France and Italy
for the success and prosperity of our Mater's Army
The Emperor, the King Napoleon the Great
(may his glory shine)
Composed in the month of Cheshvan, year 5567 (1807)
Psalms chapter 20,21,27, 147

I implore Thee, Creator of Heaven and the Universe and all who inhabit it. Thou hast established all boundaries and limitations of the world and each nation with its respective language. Thou didst give the Sceptre of power into the hands of their kings to lead the people under their reign with righteousness, justice, an uprightness; that each person in his own place should live in peace.
How fortunate we are, how good is our lot, that from Thy hand glory and beauty were poured out upon the head of a powerful man, full of vibrancy, NAPOLEON the Great, to sit on the Throne of France and Italy. Could another be found as worthy as NAPOLEON deserving of such honours and kingship, who shepherds his people with sincerity and with the understanding of his heart? Thou, GOD, hast wondrously bestowed Thy kindness upon him. As other Kings of the world approached to fight him, Thou didst protect him on the day of war, Thou didst save him from those who stood up against him, until he subdued them and they sought peace from him. With his kind spirit, he spoke words of peace to them.
Kings have now untied to break their treaty and replace peace with the blood of war. They have gathered armies to fight against him and against all those who admire him. They have come to our borders, and our master, the Emperor, the King, is standing with the might of his army to confront them.
O GOD, master of greatness, strength, power and beauty, we implore Thee to stand next to his righteousness; help him, support him with Thy mighty arm: guard him as the apple of Thine eye with an abundance of strength and health. Save him from all evil and tell him "I am your salvation."
Send Thy light and truth, that they may lead him. Render foolish all those who rise against him for evil. Let Thy light shine upon his plans. Strengthen his armies and those of his allies.
May he succeed in all his endeavors and reign over his enemies. May they seek peace from him, for he is a man who loves peace, and peace he will exercise among his nation.
Father of compassion, Master of Peace, implant in the heads of all Kings and their advisors thoughts of peace and tranquility for the benefit of all mankind. Let the Sword not pass through our land and spill the blood of our brethren. Let all nations unite in total peace and tranquility forever. Amen.
(May the words of our prayers be acceptable to Thee.)

Appendix 2

Letter to the Jewish Nation from the French Commander-in-Chief Buonaparte
(translated from the Original, 1799)
General Headquarters, Jerusalem 1st Floreal, April 20th, 1799,
in the year of 7 of the French Republic
Israelites, unique nation, whom, in thousands of years, lust of conquest and tyranny have been able to be deprived of their ancestral lands, but not of name and national existence!
Attentive and impartial observers of the destinies of nations, even though not endowed with the gifts of seers like Isaiah and Joel, have long since also felt what these, with beautiful and uplifting faith, have foretold when they saw the approaching destruction of their kingdom and fatherland: And the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads; they shall obtain joy and gladness and sorrow and sighing shall flee away. (Isaiah 35,10)
Arise then, with gladness, ye exiled! A war unexampled In the annals of history, waged in self-defense by a nation whose hereditary lands were regarded by its enemies as plunder to be divided, arbitrarily and at their convenience, by a stroke of the pen of Cabinets, avenges its own shame and the shame of the remotest nations, long forgotten under the yoke of slavery, and also, the almost two-thousand-year-old ignominy put upon you; and, while time and circumstances would seem to be least favourable to a restatement of your claims or even to their expression ,and indeed to be compelling their complet abandonment, it offers to you at this very time, and contrary to all expectations, Israel's patrimony!
The young army with which Providence has sent me hither, let by justice and accompanied by victory, has made Jerusalem my headquarters and will, within a few days, transfer them to Damascus, a proximity which is no longer terrifying to David's city.
Rightful heirs of Palestine!
The great nation which does not trade in men and countries as did those which sold your ancestors unto all people (Joel,4,6) herewith calls on you not indeed to conquer your patrimony; nay, only to take over that which has been conquered and, with that nation's warranty and support, to remain master of it to maintain it against all comers.
Arise! Show that the former overwhelming might of your oppressors has but repressed the courage of the descendants of those heroes who alliance of brothers would have done honour even to Sparta and Rome (Maccabees 12, 15) but that the two thousand years of treatment as slaves have not succeeded in stifling it.
Hasten!, Now is the moment, which may not return for thousands of years, to claim the restoration of civic rights among the population of the universe which had been shamefully withheld from you for thousands of years, your political existence as a nation among the nations, and the unlimited natural right to worship Jehovah in accordance with your faith, publicly and most probably forever (Joel 4,20).


  1. Anchel, Napoléon et les juifs, 1928
  2. Roth, C. The Jews of Malta in: Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, XII (1931).
  3. The Jewish Press Magazine, April 1998, page 69
  4. The Memoirs of Dr. Barry O'Meara
  5. The New Judea, vol 16, September 1949
  6. Schwarzfuchs, Simon. Napoleon, the Jews and the Sanhedrin
  7. The Memoirs of Baron Fain, First Secretary of the Emperor Cabinet, Proctor Jones Publishing, 1998.
  8. Kobler, Frans. Napoleon and the Jews (1975).
  9. Yahuda, A.S. Conception d'un état juif par Napoléon, Evidences publication, 1951, no 19, M