Women rulers became more common in the 17th and first half of the 18th centuries, the Early Modern period. Here are some of the more prominent women rulers -- queens, empresses -- of that period.
Anne of Hanover - profile of a British princess royal who also served as a regent for her son, Prince William V of Orange and Nassau.
Summary of the life of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, and a collection of resources for further research -- on the Net and in print.
Queen Maria Carolina of Naples and Sicily lived at a time when revolutions in Europe deposed monarchs in many nations.
A biographical sketch of Mary II of Great Britain, Queen of England who was placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution displacing her father, James II.
Biographical sketch of Mary of Modena, second wife of James II of England and mother of his son James the Old Pretender.
A profile of Anna Nzinga, warrior queen in what is today Angola, who led a resistance campaign against the Portuguese and against slave trading.
Cixi or Tz'u-hsi or Hsiao-ch'in -- a profile of the last Dowager Empress of China. However you spell her name, she was one of the most powerful women in the world in her own time -- or, perhaps, in all of history.
On this site: the Queen of Spain whose marriages and rule kicked off several wars in Spain.