By John Tarttelin, MA (History)
1) VINCENT CRONIN NAPOLEON (1971)
2) JOHN ELTING SWORDS AROUND A THRONE (1988)
3) ALEX DE JONGE NAPOLEON'S LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT (1969)
4) JAMES KEMBLE NAPOLEON IMMORTAL (1959)
5) WALTER RUNCIMAN DRAKE, NELSON AND NAPOLEON (1919)
OTHER ARTICLES BY THE AUTHOR
1) HAIRSAY AND HERESY: THE MURDER OF NAPOLEONhttp://www.napoleonicsociety.com/english/tarttelina.htm
2) THE REAL NAPOLEON http://www.napoleonicsociety.com/english/realnap.htm
3) ENGLAND 'S UNLIKELY HERO – NAPOLEONhttp://www.napoleonicsociety.com/english/tarttelin3a.htm
4) ENGLAND 'S WARS AGAINST NAPOLEONhttp://www.napoleonicsociety.com/english/tarttellin4a.htm
These articles can be found on: http://www.napoleonicsociety.com
(In order of appearance in the article)
1) NAPOLEON (1769-1821) Born in Corsica, educated in France . Successful General and later Emperor in 1804. Faced implacable opposition from the British Government and the monarchs of Europe who believed in their God-given, divine right, to rule. Forced to abdicate in 1814 and was exiled to Elba . His return to France in 1815 was wildly popular but, after his peace overtures were rejected, he was defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Exiled to Saint Helena where he was poisoned.
2) ELEANOR ROOSEVELT (1884-1962) U.S Delegate to the U.N. General Assembly. First Lady 1933-1945. Wife of President Roosevelt.
3) CAMILLA ILARI A tough Corsican peasant girl and daughter of a Ajaccio sailor. Napoleon's wet-nurse. Treated as another member of the family by the Bonapartes.
4) MADAME MERE (1750-1836) Maria Letizia Ramolini. Napoleon's mother.
5) CARLO BONAPARTE (1746-1785) Christened Charles-Marie. Napoleon's father. Because he died of stomach cancer, many people assume Napoleon must have died of the same ailment – even though Joseph and Jerome lived to a ripe old age. Supporter of Paoli's quest for Corsican independence, but when Paoli went to England , Carlo threw in his lot with the French. He was a lawyer and a lover of books – Napoleon shared this bibliophilia.
6) CAROLINE DU COLOMBIER Born c. 1768. Napoleon's first love. He met her at Valence . She was the daughter of Madame Gregoire du Colombier.
7) MADEMOISELLE DE LAUBERIE DE SAINT-GERMAIN Napoleon had his second romantic attachment with her. She was from one of the County families of Valence in whose society he was entertained. She became a lady-in-waiting to the Empress in 1806 even though she stipulated that she must have plenty of time for her husband and children!
8) ALEXANDRE DES MAZIS (1768-1841) Became Napoleon's best friend at the Ecole Militaire and afterwards at Valence . They were both in the Regiment de la Fere. He became his drill instructor because Napoleon took umbrage when his first instructor rapped him over the knuckles – which was against the regulations.
9) ROBESPIERRE ( 1758-1794) Provincial lawyer who presided over the most revolutionary phase of the French Revolution. Fanatical follower of Rousseau's social theories. Member of the Committee of Public Safety. Butcher of Reign of Terror. Some 28 guillotine beheadings a day occurred at the height of this bloodbath.
10) LOUIS-MARIE STANISLAS FRERON (1754-1802) Born in Paris to a wealthy family. Famous as enforcer of the Reign of Terror.
11) JOSEPH FOUCHE (1759-1820) Cold, calculating fanatic, served eveyone, yet no one but himself. Prominent Jacobin, arranged mass executions as in ‘The Executioner of Lyons'.
12) THE BONAPARTE FAMILY
JOSEPH (1768-1844) NAPOLEON (1769-1821) LUCIEN (1775-1840)
ELISA (1777-1820) LOUIS (1778-1846) PAULINE (1780-1825)
CAROLINE (1782-1839) JEROME (1784-1860)
13) CHARLES MAURICE DE TALLEYRAND (1754-1830) Extremely influential diplomat and inveterate womaniser. “Treason is a matter of dates” he once said to Tsar Alexander. Traitor to his country and to Napoleon. His chief intention was to enrich himself with bribes and foreign subsidies. In this he succeeded admirably.
14) EMMANUEL LAS CASAS (1766-1842) Soldier and historian, followed Napoleon into exile on Saint Helena .. Published Napoleon's memoires as ‘Memorial of St Helena' in 1823 and began the Napoleonic legend.
15) WURMSER (1724-1797) Austrian Field Marshal, but a Frenchman born at Strasbourg . Defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of Castiglione on August 5 th 1796 . Surrendered to Napoleon at Mantua
16) ARMAND LOUIS DE CAULAINCOURT (1773-1827) French General and diplomat. Always spoke his mind to Napoleon. Represented France at the Treaty of Fontainbleau April 10 th 1814 . His ‘With Napoleon in Russia ' was not published until 1933.
17) MARSHAL MARMONT (1774-1852) Early and seeming life-long friend of Napoleon, but he betrayed him by surrendering his Corps to the Allies in 1814. As Duke of Ragusa his title became a verb – raguser – a synonym for treachery. Wherever he went, little children pointed him out as ‘the man who betrayed Napoleon'.
18) JEAN LANNES (1769-1809) One of Napoleon's most able Marshals. Always said exactly what he felt. Died at Wagram . Napoleon wept at the death of his favourite.
19) PIERRE AUGEREAU (1757-1816) The hero of the Battle of Castiglione, he was very tardy in 1814 at Lyon when he could have attacked the Austrians and relieved Napoleon's embattled forces.
20) LOUIS BOURRIENNE (1769-1834) Wrote an infamous Memoir of Napoleon that is still widely used to this day by sloppy historians. He was his personal secretary from 1797-1802. In 1814 he became a Royalist.
21) MICHEL NEY (1769-1815) Le Rougeaud as the troops called him , on account of his ruddy complexion, he was ‘the bravest of the brave' in 1812 and a great personal leader of men. Son of a master barrel cooper, his wife was slighted by the Borbons he served in 1814. As a result, he rallied, belatedly to Napoleon in 1815. To this day, it is not known why he threw his cavalry at the British squares time after time at Waterloo without bothering to bring up his infantry or horse artillery.
22) JEAN- BAPTISTE BERNADOTTE (1769-1844) Republican whose ‘support' for Napoleon was always tenuous. Often dallied in plots and intrigue. Married Desiree Clary and later became Crown Prince of Sweden. Traitor to France and Napoleon.
23) DESIREE CLARY (1777-1860) Had a romance of sorts with a young Napoleon, who considered marrying her. However, one Bonaparte in the family was enough for her parents. She later married Bernadotte and became Queen of Sweden – a place she disliked. Because of her, Napoleon spared her husband on many occasions.
NAPOLEON'S ACTS OF GENEROSITY AND KINDNESS
* Vincent Cronin ‘NAPOLEON' (1971) p. 491
1. Ibid., p.18
2. Quotation from a flier for the new Oxford History of Quotations Folio
Edition 2008. www.foliosociety.com3. James Kemble ‘NAPOLEON IMMORTAL' (1959) p. 22
4. Ibid., p. 23 Napoleon's letter of March 28, 1785 , Paris .
5. Ibid., p. 37
6. Ibid., p. 38
7. Vincent Cronin op.cit., p. 254
8. Ibid., p. 74
9. Ibid., p. 83
10. Ibid., ps. 83-84
11. Ibid., p. 91
12. Ibid., p. 91
13. Ibid., p. 104
14. Walter Runciman ‘DRAKE, NELSON AND NAPOLEON' (1919) p. 128
15. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Nicholas_Dorsaz16. John Elting ‘SWORDS AROUND A THRONE' (1988) p. 596
17. Ibid., p. 596
18. Ibid., p. 596 and ps. 635-636
19. Ibid., p. 572
20. James Kemble op.cit., p. 66
21. Vincent Cronin op. cit., p. 150
22. John Elting op.cit., p. 529
23. Walter Runciman op. cit., p. 136
24. Ibid., p. 136 Runciman himself quotes Napoleon here.
25. John Elting op.cit., p. 596
26. Ibid., p. 735
27. Ibid., p. 178
28. Ibid., p. 205
29. Alex de Jonge ‘NAPOLEON'S LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT' (1969)
See this for a lot more details of his generosity from beyond the grave.