Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I, grew up in exile, determined to regain the throne of France. After the 1848 Revolution, he was elected president of the Second Republic (1850–1852), then was made emperor (1852–1870). While his domestic policy was fairly liberal and forward-thinking, a disastrous war with Prussia led to his end. He was deposed and sent to England, where he died in 1873.
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