Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Important Grimoire 15th-16th century

The term “grimoire” originated from the Old French word “grammaire” which meant “grammar” and was used to refer to all books that were written in Latin.  However, by the 18th century, the term had taken on a new meaning: medieval European magic textbooks.  Grimoire were collections of spells, instructions on how to create magical objects, and guides to summoning demons, angels, and spirits.  They frequently contained astrological dioramas, lists of mystic entities, and even instructions for mixing medicines.  While in modern society the term “grimoire” has come to encompass any kind of collection of magic, authentic grimoire were based off the magical traditions of Jewish, Muslim, and medieval Christian rituals and texts.  Therefore, authentic grimoire didn’t usually contain Pagan rituals or magic.  I have collected a list of ten of the most influential and historically significant grimoire throughout history.  My goal was to present them in chronological order.  However, because many grimoire don’t have definite publishing dates, I have had to take liberties in arranging them.  Also, many grimoire had multiple names.  For each entry I have tried to include their most important ones.

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The Key of Solomon/Clavis Salomonis/Mafteah Shelomoh (14th-15th Century)

The Key of Solomon
The Key of Solomon is one of the most famous, important, and influential grimoires of all time.  While it claims to have originated with King Solomon, it dates back to the 14th or 15th century Italian Renaissance.  It inspired many other grimoires such as The Lesser Key of Solomon.  The incantations and spells contained within were considerably powerful.  Before they could be performed the practitioner needed to confess his sins and be purged of evil, thereby invoking the protection of God.  The text includes instructions for conjurations, invocations and curses to summon and control spirits of the dead and demons.  In addition, it details all of the different purification rituals, special outfits, and mystical instruments that need to be used during said practices.

 The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage (1450s)

The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage
The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage was originally a collection of magical and Kabbalistic secrets.  However, it gained particular popularity when it was later adopted by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (a magical order in Great Britain during the late 19th and early 20th century) and the religion of Thelema (developed in the early 20th century by Aleister Crowley).  The text itself is a kind of epistolary novel wherein Abraham of Worms describes his journey from Germany to Egypt along with Abra-Melin’s secrets to his son Lamech.  According to the text, Abraham met the powerful Egyptian mage Abra-Melin who taught him Kabbalistic magic.  The text contains a complex and elaborate ritual for contacting one’s guardian angel and receiving magical secrets from him.  In all, the ritual takes eighteen months.  There are several other spells and magics contained within: the casting of love charms, flight, invisibility, and the ability to discover buried treasure.

Heptameron (‘Seven Days’) of Peter de Abano (1496)

The Heptameron of Peter de Abano was written by noted Italian philosopher and astrologer Pietro de Abano who died in prison during the Inquisition on claims of heresy and atheism.  He lived from 1250-1316, but his Heptameron wasn’t published until the late 1400s.  The text is a manual of planetary magic.  It details the rites for summoning angels for each of the seven days of the week.  It also contains instructions for the creation of magic circles, the consecrations of salt, water, and incense, and planetary hours.  This grimoire was especially important as it influenced the Lemegeton, a famous 17th century book on demonology.

 3. The Munich Handbook/The Munich Necromantic Handbook/Munich Manual of Demonic Magic/The Necromancer’s Manual (15th century)

The Munich Handbook
The Munich Handbook is an unusual grimoire in that it focuses on demonic magic and necromancy.  It almost completely glosses over angels and the rituals for summoning them.  Interestingly, it is believed by experts to having been written by none other than a member of the clergy.  Many of its spells include the sacrificing of mythological and folkloric creatures and animals.  For instance, one spell for creating an imaginary banquet involves the sacrifice of a hoopoe (a colorful bird found throughout Afro-Eurasia).  The book is also important for more than its magical contents.  It is a window into how the clergy and learned Christians viewed and practiced magic during the Middle Ages.

 Grand Grimoire/The Red Dragon (1522?)

Grand Grimoire or The Red Dragon
The Grand Grimoire is a book of black magic that claims to have been written in 1522, but may have originated after the 18th century.  It is considered to be the most evil and dangerous grimoire in existence.  The text has a sinister purpose: the summoning of Lucifer or Lucifuge Rofocale (the demon in charge of the government of Hell) in order to make a Deal with the Devil.  It also contains a hierarchy of infernal spirits.  But in addition to the summoning of demons, it contains a large number of spells, formulas, and secrets.  These include spells to make people dance completely naked and invisibility.  But be warned!  The Grand Grimoire is considered to be so atrocious that even experienced magicians and practitioners of the occult warn against it.

 Libri Tres de Occulta Philosophia by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa/ Three Books of Occult Philosophy (1531)

Libri Tres de Occulta Philosophia
The Three Books of Occult Philosophy was written by famous German magician, astrologer, and alchemist Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa.  The books dealt with Elemental, Celestial, and Intellectual magic.  These three kinds of magic are subdivided into many other different disciplines that include the four elements, astrology, Kabbalhaism, numerology, angelology, scrying, and alchemy.  The three books were landmarks in discussing magic in scholarly and intellectual terms.  They also contain a large amount of pagan and Neoplatonic magic.  It is also a source of great curiosity as it makes references and provides extracts on magic from obscure and/or lost works from famous historical figures such as Pythagoras, Ptolemy, Plato, and Aristotle.  Even by modern standards, they are considered to be the authoritative texts on magic by occultists.

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